Literature Review


The paper analysis the approach to the review of the literature covering nursing materials and understanding of precise topics. The primary focus of the paper follows a comprehensive analysis of the thesis statement in which aims to outline the implications of chronic diseases and people living with dementia to the society. The analysis outlines the Australian society which illustrates the extensive increase in the chronic diseases and escalation of people living with mental problems in the society. The study utilizes qualitative semi-structured approach to evaluate existing literatures and research on the topic of concern. The creation of a better understanding of the conduct of the search using online resources is explained in three sections. These include the flow chart that outlines the literature including the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the contents used in the search. Also, the table that outlines the selected literature summary. Finally, the key findings of the study impacting to the development of knowledge and understanding of nursing contents.

Research Question

What are the implications of chronic diseases and people living with mental problems to the society in Australia?

Search Strategy

The study conducts a secondary search using online resources intended to thoroughly examine the manifestation of chronic diseases and mental problems to the society in Australia. The focus of Australian society is informed by the escalation of the mental problems among its growing population. The study aims to explain how these diseases take a toll on the society delves on the adverse implications. Such include the study on financial restrains to the society and family members, nursing approaches to the problems, psychological effects, and provision of the best care possible, as well as, the government’s role in curbing the growing problem. The understanding of chronic diseases and dementia problems in the society is a fundamental and worthwhile research topic that has a profound impact to the society in advancing better preparations and documentation of the best practices in handling the menace.

The search strategy has identified the inclusions and exclusions of the study creates a clear definition of the resources to include as authentic or not. The qualitative research utilizing semi-structured methods expounds on the concepts and theories that inform nursing approaches to health care provisions. The inclusions of the paper include the use of scholarly, journalistic, peer-reviewed materials, government departments, and organizations at the frontline of dealing with chronic diseases. The exclusions of the search strategy include the avoidance in the use of Wikipedia, Investopedia, Blogs, among other resources that lack scholarly foundation. The use of the university library online tool is critical to enhancing the search strategy with well-informed and researched materials. Also, the search strategy pays attention to finding qualitative and quantitative researched materials to expound on the understanding of chronic diseases and mental health problems in the society. Furthermore, the use of google scholar is significant for the finding authentic materials and referencing purposes in acknowledging the author and ideas presented by different individuals.

Table 2 Selected Literature Summary

Author(s) (Year) Country Type of Review / Methodology   Main Focus Discipline Participants Key Findings and Comments
Data from Bromley et al. (2013)


Uses Semi-structured Interviews Presents community’s experiences and perspectives on person’s diagnosed with serious mental disorders. Psychiatry 30 Individuals with serious mental illness.

Covers 2 Public Mental Health Clinics

The community is a critical aspect of persons living with mental problems and chronic disease.

Identifies FOUR key experiences for the importance of the community; Avoiding Stigma, Giving Back, Minimizing Risk, and Receiving Help.

Data from DeJean et al. (2013)


Uses Qualitative Meta-Synthesis for integration of the findings across relevant published primary research studies. Presents patient’s experience with chronic diseases. Nursing 2 Reviewers analyzing published studies from January 2002 to May 2012. 20 primary qualitative studies were found to be synthesized.

Indicates tendencies of patients diagnosed with chronic conditions, depression, anxiety, dementia to be either independent or inter-related.

Shows the need for close society links and cooperation in handling the problem.

Data from Embuldeniya et al. (2013)

Canada, UK, and USA

Uses Qualitative Synthesis, i.e., meta-ethnography synthesizing 25 papers. Induces peer support interventions to persons diagnosed with chronic diseases. Psychology Synthesizing of 25 papers meeting specific inclusion criteria. Emotional support is found to be of significance in the society; encourage community’s participation and continued persons to persons diagnosed with chronic and mental illnesses.
Data from Golics et al. (2013)


Quantitative Evaluates impact of chronic diseases on family quality of life. Medicine Includes 133 family members of mostly chronically ill patients.

Diversifies 26 medical practices.

Identifies key themes associated with family quality of life in the wake of affected person(s) with chronic diseases in the family.

These include a wide range of issues affected in the diagnosis with the chronic diseases and mental illness; daily activities, emotional impact, family relationships, financial impact, holidays, medical care and support to the family members, sleep and health, social life, time planning, as well as, work and study.

Chronic diseases and mental illness have profound implications for the family and society at large.

Data from Iseselo, Kajula & Yahya-Malima (2016)


Uses Explorative Qualitative Study Examines psychological effects of dealing with mental illnesses and coping strategies. Psychiatry Involves FOUR Focus Group Discussions.

Also, includes 2-in-depth interviews – family members providing care to patients with mental illness.

Familiar care induces both positive and adverse implications on the society.

Adverse implications revolve around social and psychological challenges for the caregivers and the patients.

Outlines financial constraints, disruption of family functioning, discrimination, lack of social support, stigma, and disruption of patient’s behavior pose complications to the society.

Data from Kemppainen, Tossavainen & Turunen (2013)

Global Outreach

Uses Integrative Reviews Examines nurses’ role in health care provisions. Nursing Nurses across disciplines and expertise Finds nurses to play a fundamental care in the provision of care and medical assistance.

Presents the need for multidisciplinary knowledge, skills and competence, respect and attitudes, and personal traits in contributing to the nurse’s ability to execute health promotion.

In chronic diseases and mental illness – nursing professionalism is core to improved service delivery.

Data from Mfoafo-M’Carthy & Huls (2014)

Global Level

Uses extensive review of existing literature focusing on mental health and human rights violations. Assesses human rights and mental illness relations. Nursing 2 Scholars Key human rights violations found to be prevalent in many societies against persons diagnosed with mental illness include; denial of marriage, employment, procreation, negligence, malnutrition, education, and physical abuse.

The society has a key role to play in ensuring safety and adherence to human rights of the affected persons.

Data from Renzaho et al. (2013)


Quantitative Evaluates stressfulness of life following the onset of chronic diseases. Public Health 9222 participants took part in the survey

Conducted in waves 3 (2003), 7 (2007), and 9 (2009).

Finds prevalence of work-related stress to escalate on the onset of the anxiety or depression.

Personal stress is a major factor in the increase of depression or anxiety.

Family-related stress has a significant impact on the intensity of chronic diseases.

Thus, work-related, family and/or personal-related stressful life has major implications on the course and/or development of chronic diseases in the society.

Data from Roberge et al. (2016)


Uses Qualitative Descriptive Study and Semi-structured interviews Examines factors essential to advance the quality of care in mental disorders patients. Psychology Participants – 18 Clinicians and 10 Patients

(Clinicians – Nurses, Family Physician, Social Worker, Psychologist).

Evaluates patients’ factors – preferences, needs, communication, and access to care.

Clinician factors – the perception of roles, management of medical priorities, attitudes, and collaboration.

Nurses have a primary role in the medication and care of chronic diseases and mental disorders.

Data from Taheri et al. (2017)


Mixed Assess experiences of chronic hepatitis B. Nursing 27 patients with Chronic Hepatitis B.

Data collected in 22 months between 2015 – 2016.

Chronic diseases culminate in insufficient self-care in the society, spiritual struggle, stigmatization, post-traumatic growth, misperceptions, failure, and psychological deficiency.

Assert the need of the society in helping affected persons through the treatment difficulties.

Evaluates the profound challenges the disease poses on the individuals, family members, and the community in general.

Data from Willcox (2014)


Policy Reform Approach Examines the changing course of chronic diseases in Australia. Public Health Population-wide Approach Identifies diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, mental illness, and respiratory problems to pose profound long-term impacts on the individuals, families, and communities.

Escalation of chronic diseases and mental disorders threaten to overwhelm Australia’s health budget, health workforce, and capacity for health services provisions.

Demand coordinated and combined approaches for the creation of prevention initiatives to save the community and the nation.

Data from Wu et al. (2016)


Mixed Examines the changing course of chronic diseases and mental illness in Australia. Public Health Monthly is collected using the Surveillance System of the Participants.

A study conducted between 2005 and 2015.

The study findings based on school-aged children assert that mental health problems are as a result of long-term illness and/or pain, failure to live with biological parents, male sex, negative school experiences, and living in rental dwellings.

Uphold the significance of society in building a happier and contented populace with family values.

Discussion of the Key Findings

The study conducted using secondary sources on the internet utilizes various search tools and strategies to acquire extensive resources. The resources focus on the implication of chronic diseases and mental disorders in Australia. The study assesses the state of society and its mandates in providing the necessary care and health services. The rowing tendencies of the escalation of mental disorders and chronic diseases in Australia presents the society to be at a strategic position in leading the prevention measures of the menace. The society’s combined efforts are fundamental to the resolve of mental disorders and chronic diseases (Renzalo et al. 2013). The study finds the collaboration of the society on handling the mental and chronic illnesses to induce significant mandates in the provision of care, the happiness of both the individuals and the society, and focused financing.

Willcox (2014) deliberates on the value of the society in policy reform that outlines the approach to dealing with chronic diseases and mental disorders. The Australian government has been widely renowned for its profound measures towards health care and implementation of evidence-based changes to policy, creates an opportunity for prioritization of the adopted policies. In turn, the approach to chronic diseases and mental disorders that may cause socio-economic constraints can be resolved. The significance of policy prioritizing aims at enhancing the government to focus key investments to the necessary aspects of improving the health care providers in the country in an area that is continuously posing a profound threat to the society.

Notably, the analysis of the health care research outlined by various scholars and research cutting across different countries present a vast opportunity for understanding of the chronic disorders and mental disorders menace in the society. The analysis of the Canadian, Iranian, Tanzanian, United Kingdom, and United States approach to chronic diseases and mental health illness illustrates different approaches and practices that would prove crucial to the improvement of Australian health care. Taheri et al. (2017) discuss the importance of the society in assisting and offering the necessary care to the affected persons in the society. This is critical in enhancing their human rights and human dignity which is applicable to the affected person’s productivity and functionality in the society (Mfoafo-M’Carthy & Huls 2014). Thus, all individuals in the society must remain productive and contribute to its growth and development.

According to Iseselo, Kajula, and Yahya-Malima (2016), the continuous participation of the society through the families in care provision impacts positively to the management of the chronic diseases and mental health illnesses. The negligence proves to be costly in casting a toll of psychological and social challenges on the families in the wake of escalation of mental disorders in the society. The risk posed by the escalation of mental and chronic disorders in the society is severe impacting stigmatization, discrimination, and disruption of social functioning. In a society like Australia, where every individual is likely to be directly or indirectly affected by mental disorders (dementia, depression, and anxiety) and chronic diseases – cooperation is paramount for care provision (Bromley et al. 2013).

Furthermore, the lessons drawn from the analysis of various studies in different countries assert the need for concerted communal efforts in health care provision. The upgrading of close society links in handling the mental health problems and chronic disease creates a support system where individuals can confide and find solace (DeJean et al. 2013). The functionality of the society depends on its capacity to resolve the main problems affecting its members presenting the need for advanced investment and community awareness.


In conclusion, the research finds the nurses (professional physicians) and caregivers have a close link to the society. The affected persons diagnosed with chronic diseases and mental illness need not be robbed with human dignity to continue living a dignified and worth living. It is fundamental for all stakeholders to focus on prevention measures for both the patients and the caregivers impacting on the reduction of depression and socio-economic challenges. Also, the government’s efforts and policy formulation give priority to the main issues affecting society and approaches that ensure the improvement of the health status. Thus, creating an opportunity for improvement of the society and reduction of chronic and mental disorders adverse implications and human rights violations by creating a free society that value every individual.




Bromley, E., Gabrielian, S., Brekke, B., Pahwa, R., Daly, K. A., Brekke, J. S., & Braslow, J. T. (2013). Experiencing community: Perspectives of individuals diagnosed as having a serious mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 64(7), 672-679.

DeJean, D., Giacomini, M., Vanstone, M., & Brundisini, F. (2013). Patient experiences of depression and anxiety with chronic disease: a systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis. Ontario health technology assessment series, 13(16), 1.

Embuldeniya, G., Veinot, P., Bell, E., Bell, M., Nyhof-Young, J., Sale, J. E., & Britten, N. (2013). The experience and impact of chronic disease peer support interventions: A qualitative synthesis. Patient education and counseling, 92(1), 3-12.

Golics, C. J., Basra, M. K. A., Salek, M. S., & Finlay, A. Y. (2013). The impact of patients’ chronic disease on family quality of life: an experience from 26 specialties. International journal of general medicine, 6, 787.

Iseselo, M. K., Kajula, L., & Yahya-Malima, K. I. (2016). The psychosocial problems of families caring for relatives with mental illnesses and their coping strategies: a qualitative urban-based study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1), 146.

Kemppainen, V., Tossavainen, K., & Turunen, H. (2013). Nurses’ roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review. Health Promotion International, 28(4), 490-501.

Mfoafo-M’Carthy, M., & Huls, S. (2014). Human rights violations and mental illness: Implications for engagement and adherence. SAGE Open, 4(1), 2158244014526209.

Renzaho, A. M., Houng, B., Oldroyd, J., Nicholson, J. M., D’Esposito, F., & Oldenburg, B. (2013). Stressful life events and the onset of chronic diseases among Australian adults: findings from a longitudinal survey. The European Journal of Public Health, 24(1), 57-62.

Roberge, P., Hudon, C., Pavilanis, A., Beaulieu, M. C., Benoit, A., Brouillet, H., … & Gaudreault, M. (2016). A qualitative study of perceived needs and factors associated with the quality of care for common mental disorders in patients with chronic diseases: the perspective of primary care clinicians and patients. BMC family practice, 17(1), 134.

Taheri Ezbarami, Z., Hassani, P., Zagheri Tafreshi, M., & Alavi Majd, H. (2017). A qualitative study on individual experiences of chronic hepatitis B patients. Nursing open, 4(4), 310-318.

Willcox, S. (2014). Chronic diseases in Australia: the case for changing course: Background and policy paper.

Wu, J., Dal Grande, E., Winefield, H., Broderick, D., Pilkington, R., Gill, T. K., & Taylor, A. W. (2016). Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children. AIMS public health, 3(4), 750.

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