Career counseling for multicultural groups & gender issues and dual


1. Which of the following is not one of the Six Stages of Development suggested by Pope?

A. the growth of placement services in urban areas to meet the needs of growing industrial organizations

B. (1920–1939) growth of educational guidance in elementary and secondary schools.

C. significant growth of guidance needs in colleges and universities and in the training of counselors

D. The growth of free form or “hippy” norms, of dropping out and tuning in

E. a period of significant transitions brought on by infor mation technology and the beginning of career counseling private practice and outplacement services.

2. Among the earliest theorists on vocational counseling, Parsons (1909) maintained that vocational guidance is accomplished first by studying the individual, second by surveying occupations, and finally by matching the individual with the occupation. This process is called:

A. trait-and-factor theory

B. Carrot and stick theory

C. Self assessment theory

D. Career focused theory

3. The key characteristic of this theory is the assumption that individuals have:

A. Specific abilities which suit them to a narrow range of jobs in which they can succeed, and which means they will fail at all others

B. unique patterns of ability and/or traits that can be measured objectively and correlated with the requirements of various types of jobs

C. Abilities that they do not know about, but which can be extracted by bastinado

D. Unlimited potential, as, given sufficent confidence, anyone can succeed in any career, once they overcome self imposed barriers

4. Williamson’s approach to counseling contained six sequential steps: 

A. analysis, synthesis, diagnosis, prognosis, counseling, and follow-up

B. analysis, diagnosis, synthesis, prognosis, counseling, and follow-up

C. Diagnosis, analysis, synthesis, prognosis, counseling, and follow-up

D. analysis, synthesis, diagnosis, prognosis, counseling, and follow-up

5. What is PEC?

A. personal-environmental-correspondence

B. person-environment-correspondence

C. person-environment-counseling

D. personal-environment-counseling

6. This theory (PEC) includes all of these elements, except this one:

A. work is more than step-by-step task- oriented procedures

B. work includes human interaction and sources of satisfaction, dissatisfaction, rewards, stress, and many other psychological variables

C. individuals seek to achieve and maintain a positive relationship with their work environments

D. Only work of a certain level can offer adult humans meaning in their life

7. Who developed a “hexagonal model” of 5 key concepts?

A. Parson

B. Hepburn

C. Holland

D. Hebdo

E. Harnak

8. Spokane (1985) and Dumenci (1995) concluded that research did support the theory that: 

A. congruence is highly related to academic performance and persistence, job satisfaction, and stability of choice

B. congruence is unrelated to academic performance and persistence, job satisfaction, and stability of choice

C. confluence is highly related to academic performance and persistence, job satisfaction, and stability of choice

D. Confluence is generally unrelated to empyment aptitude and job performance and stability in work

9. Three client labels that have been used extensively are:

A. decided, undecided, or indifferent

B. determined, undetermined, or indecisive

C. decided, undecided, or indecisive

D. undecided,  semi-decided, or indecisive

E. decided, undecided, or decisive

10. Which of these types (above) of clients is characterized as one who has a high level of anxiety accompanied by dysfunctional thinking

A. Decided

B. Undecided

C. Indecisive

D. Undetermined

E. Indifferent

11. The model described by Dawis 1996; Swanson & Fouad, 2010; Walsh, 1990 include seven stages. Which is not one of these?

A. Intake Interview

B. Identify Developmental Variables

C. Directed Cognition

D. Assessment

E. Identify and Solve Problems

12. Matsumoto & Juang suggested it seems feasible to first determine the level of acculturation including the following: 

A. socioeconomic status, language preference, place of birth, generation level, preferred ethnic identity, and ethnic group social contacts

B. socioeconomic status, languages spoken, place of birth, generation level, preferred ethnic identity, and ethnic group social contacts

C. socioeconomic status, language preference, race of birth, generation level, preferred gender identity, and ethnic group social contacts

D. socioeconomic status, sexual preference, date of birth, generation level, preferred ethnic identity, and ethnic group social contacts

13. According to Durand and Barlow, One can expect depressed clients to:

A. be disruptive and hostile due to unwanted attention

B.  Self sabotage as they have no experience of success in life

C. be indecisive and have serious relational problems

D. have strong indications of emotional stability

E.  Be grandiose and overconfident

14. Which fact is untrue of the development of standardized tests:

A. assessment inventories have been closely associated with the career counseling movement.

B. As early as 1783, the U.S. Civil Service Commission used competitive examinations for job placement

C.  Multiple aptitude-test batteries developed during the mid-1940s have been widely used in educational and vocational counseling

D. Scholastic aptitude tests used as admission criteria for educational institutions were implemented through the (ETS) established in 1947

E. the American College Testing Program (ACT) was established in 1959

15. What is the purpose and procedure of “Guided Fantasy”?

A. clients will not express their needs and desires openly when they are free of perceived restraints.

B. clients will express their needs and desires openly when they are free of perceived restraints.

C. clients will express their needs and desires openly when they are subject to  perceived restraints.

D. clients will express their traits and abilities openly when they are free of perceived restraints

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